Generally speaking, since most circuit boards are densely woven constructions of metal and dielectric, it is crucial to identify a site that is the most likely point of failure before beginning any PCB cross-section analysis. A cross section will only give information about a single “plane” of a device; the absence of a defect in a given plane by no means rules out the existence of defects altogether since any anomaly could just as easily be in one of the infinite numbers of other possible cross-section planes. The first step in any PCB cross-section analysis is, therefore, an attempt to isolate the failure to as narrow a region as possible, using the circuit layout and schematic in conjunction with point-to-point electrical testing and specialized tools like thermal imaging to pinpoint a defect before the cross section even begins.
Once a site has been chosen, the PCB cross-section analysis will continue in the same fashion as for a board qualification. The sample will be ground and polished until the desired site has been exposed, then the sample will be inspected for any anomalies. Burnt dielectrics, cracked copper traces, improperly wetted solder joints, and stray metal filaments are some of the many defects that can be revealed by cross section. Once the defect has been found, an analyst will determine the most likely cause of failure - for example, whether a cracked trace is most likely due to a manufacturing defect or improper handling by an end user.
Though powerful, PCB cross-section analysis only one of many tools for approaching failures on a printed circuit board. Other techniques, like printed circuit board delayering or “dye-and-pry” (the use of a brightly colored dye to reveal any cracking or delamination on solder interfaces) might be more appropriate for a given failure mode. It is important, therefore, to entrust difficult-to-find PCB failures to labs with a wide breadth of experience with the various approaches to PCB analysis.